Brigidine College
Library Pathfinder

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Physics

Year 11 – Bridges

Vocabulary for bridges
http://teachers.yale.edu/curriculum/search/viewer.php?id=initiative_08.04.05_u#f

Databases

Britannica provides access to encyclopedia articles, video and audio clips, learning and teaching materials.
Encyclopedia Britannica (external entry)
The password required is the same as the password to access the Brigidine newsletter.
Ask the Library staff if you do not know this password.

Search terms include: Bridge, suspension bridge, Tacoma, cable-stayed etc.

 

Example images from Britannica:

 

 

 

 

Electric Library will give you access to full text magazine and newspaper articles.

Use a phrase such as “Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure” whilst searching.

Interesting articles: Past and future failures, Petroski, Henry American Scientist
Another article:  Disaster Inspires Inventor. An excerpt : “The newly built suspension bridge, which spanned a strait in Washington state, was insufficiently rigid and rippled like a clothesline in the breeze, a phenomenon called aeroelastic flutter”;
Yet another article: November 7 1940 . An excerpt: “It would appear from the meager evidence now available thai the long suspension bridge over the Tacoma Narrows of Puget Sound collapsed for the same reason that the walls of Jericho collapsed under the blasts of Joshua's trumpet. The bridge was "out of tune”

World Wide Web Resources

 

Types of bridges. There are six basic bridge forms: the beam, the truss, the arch, the suspension, the cantilever, and the cable-stay.



Bridge Basics
engineers have designed three major types of bridges to withstand all forces of nature.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/basics.html

Bridge Basics. Great images and concise information
http://www.pghbridges.com/basics.htm

Bridge Types
http://www.bardaglea.org.uk/bridges/3-bridges.html

Basic Bridge Types. Good illustrations and simple explanations of types
http://www.matsuo-bridge.co.jp/english/bridges/index.shtm

Types of Bridges
http://www32.brinkster.com/redjeep/bridges/types.htm

Cable-stayed bridges

http://www.brantacan.co.uk/cable_stayed.htm

 

Cable-stayed bridges

http://bridgepros.com

 

Truss Bridge Design. The history and principles of rational truss bridge design

http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/machines/bridges.htm

 

 

Suspension bridge
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetsusp.html

How bridges work – mechanics, physics, mathematics

Major Types of Bridges. Includes materials and construction
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002223/types/types.html

Technical information on structures. Shape and forces
http://www.bardaglea.org.uk/bridges/4-tech.html

Bridge Types
http://www.bardaglea.org.uk/bridges/bridge-types/bridge-types-intro.html
Technical information on structure – i.e. forces

How Bridges work
http://www.howstuffworks.com/bridge1.htm

Physics of bridges. Power point. Norman Kwong
http://www.physics.ubc.ca/outreach/phys420/p420_04/norman/physics_of_bridges.ppt

Physics Quest. Bridges
explore the different types of bridges and its characteristics such as the forces that keep them stable and factors that affect its construction
http://physicsquest.homestead.com/bridge.html

Bridge Construction – principles of technology.  Power Point printouts. Looks at Newton’s law and forces and relates it to bridge building and construction
http://mrwood.org/pot/resource/Bridge%20Construction.pdf

Mechanics: Bridges. The mathematics and geometry of building bridges
http://www.iit.edu/~smart/acadyear/bridges.htm

Bridge Designer

Design your own Truss bridge

http://www.jhu.edu/~virtlab/bridge/truss.htm




Tacoma Narrows Bridge information

Some consideration in the design of long span bridges against progressive collapse

http://www.pwri.go.jp/eng/ujnr/tc/g/pdf/23/23-2-3zoli.pdf

 

Highway in the sky. Refer to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge and to the difference between

Suspension and cable-stay bridges

http://weldingmag.com/processes/news/wdf_54870

Bridges.
Power point presentation

http://bondphysics.info/Lectures/Waves/Bridges%20-%20short.ppt

 

Oscillations and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure

http://www.d.umn.edu/~dmorriso/sciencewriting/webcontest/webcontest/student%20samples%20of%20term%20project/review%20article/FinalPaperTnb2.PDF

 

Tacoma Narrows Bridge
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge_(1940)

Tacoma Narrows Bridge
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/TNBhistory


Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
You Tube
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HxTZ446tbzE&feature=related

Tacoma Narrows Bridge “Galloping Gertie” collapses November 7 , 1940
http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/tnbhistory/Connections/connections3.htm

Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure. Short but succinct article outlying failure theories http://www.vibrationdata.com/Tacoma.htm

Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapse showed engineers and the world the importance of dampening, vertical rigidity, and torsional resistance in all suspension bridges
http://matdl.org/failurecases/Bridge%20Cases/Tacoma.htm

Collapse of Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Student essay
http://www.bookrags.com/essay-2003/5/19/19235/1692

Scroll down to information on the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge.
Causes of the collapse are explained. There is also footage of the incident
http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Tacoma_Narrows_Bridge

Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster. Picture, Video
http://www.enm.bris.ac.uk/research/nonlinear/tacoma/tacoma.html

Resonance, Energy in vibrations
http://www.lightandmatter.com/html_books/3vw/ch02/ch02.html#Section2.1

The physics of bridges
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/5/01.05.08.x.html
A disadvantage to a suspension bridge is its reaction to the wind. This was discovered during the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington State. This bridge began resonating with the wind and began to move like a wave in the ocean This bridge was not stiff enough. Although the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was designed to withstand 120 mph winds, it eventually collapsed due to the excessive movements of the bridge during a 40 mph wind which magnified through resonant frequencies.

The collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge was a result of the differences in air pressure above and below the road deck. Similar to the wing of an airplane, the greater wind pressure below the deck and lower wind pressure above caused a lifting of the road. The varying wind speeds along different parts of the deck caused the road to lift and twist.



Brisbane Bridges

 

Bridges over the Brisbane River

http://www.answers.com/topic/bridges-of-brisbane


Some of the difficulties engineers and architects face in designing bridges are:

*      the uplift forces of wind. Brisbane is in a cyclone area, and, for tall structures, the wind forces pretty much dominate design decisions;

*      extreme temperature changes, which cause creep and shrinkage;

*      vibration frequency: resonance problems in low-frequency structures

http://www.slab.com.au/papfootb.php

 

 

 

Story Bridge. Queensland Government  - Metal Truss Bridge
http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/chims/placeDetail.html;jsessionid=7f00000130d8b1e15b3b42b947869ae7a0224eccea08.e34NaN8SbNyKci0LaNmPbhqOaxuOe6fznA5Pp7ftolbGmkTy?siteId=15015

 

Your Brisbane Past and Present. Story Bridge

http://www.yourbrisbanepastandpresent.com/2009/02/story-bridge.html

Story Bridge

http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?ID=s0004718

 

Story Bridge – a detailed profile

http://www.advance-merc.com.au/storybridge.html

 

About the Gateway

http://www.qldmotorways.com.au/aboutus/history/gatewaybridge.aspx

 

Gateway Bridges

http://www.gatewayupgradeproject.com.au/asp/index.asp?page=about&cid=5211&id=370

Monkey bar in pioneering use at Gateway
steel reinforcement bar connectors in a world first for civil engineering.
http://www.monkeysteel.com/pressrelease/gateway_upgrade.html/context/24

Kurilpa Bridge

http://www.publicworks.qld.gov.au/majorprojects/Pages/KurilpaBridge.aspx

 

Kurilpa Bridge. Baulderstone’s Kurilpa Bridge

http://www.bbau.com.au/Default.aspx?aCateId=874

 

Kurilpa

http://www.baulderstone.com.au/index.php?page=projects&id=274&name=KURILPA+BRIDGE

Eleanor Schonell Bridge (Green Bridge)
The cable stayed deck is 20m wide, 520m long (main span of 185 m + two back spans of 73 m), with two 70m-high H-shaped reinforced concrete towers in the river and a tie-down pier at end of each back-span.

http://www.structuralsystems.com.au/SSL/Cases/SSL-PDS-PT008-ESB.asp


Goodwill Bridge

http://www.archmedia.com.au/aa/aaissue.php?article=12&issueid=200209&typeon=2

 



Cable stay bridge wins award

The Jack Pesch Bicycle and Pedestrian Bridge is a three span cable-stayed structure.

http://www.onesteel.com/images/db_images/casestudies/bridgep22ssap.pdf

Jack Pesch Bridge

A key feature is the Austress Freyssinet multi-strand cable support system, comprising polyethylene sheathed multi-strand 15.2 milimetre strands enclosed in high density polyethylene protective casings

http://www.bluescopesteel.com.au/index.cfm/objectID.B855FDA0-036A-11D4-89EF00C04FCF6B8F

William Jolly Bridge
http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/chims/placeDetail.html;jsessionid=7f00000130d59773a90bc81045cb90c49be2f85366dc.e34NaN8SbNyKci0SbNqRch0LaNb0n6jAmljGr5XDqQLvpAe?siteId=16450

 



William Jolly Bridge
http://www.baulderstone.com.au/index.php?page=projects&id=324&name=WILLIAM+JOLLY+BRIDGE

 

 

Hale Street Link

http://www.halestreetlink.com.au/home/default.asp


Victoria Bridge
http://www.baulderstone.com.au/index.php?page=projects&id=317&name=VICTORIA+BRIDGE


Bridge Projects world wide construction of bridges. May be useful

http://bridgepros.com

Captain Cook Bridge riddled with holes

http://www.news.com.au/couriermail/story/0,23739,22258655-952,00.html

Detailed investigation shows Captain Cook Bridge safe

http://www.cabinet.qld.gov.au/MMS/StatementDisplaySingle.aspx?id=59557


Indooroopilly Toll Bridge

http://nla.gov.au/nla.cs-pa-http%253A%252F%252Fenc.slq.qld.gov.au%252Flogicrouter%252Fservlet%252FLogicRouter%253FPAGE%253Dobject%2526OUTPUTXSL%253Dobject_enc36ui.xslt%2526pm_RC%253DPICTQLD%2526pm_OI%253D13022%2526api_1%253DGET_OBJECT_XML%2526num_result%253D0

 

Albert Bridge

http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/chims/placeDetail.html;jsessionid=7f00000130d6cc5156b46ef3467ea901e7da2f699e52.e34NaN8SbNyKci0OaNaNaxeQb3n0n6jAmljGr5XDqQLvpAe?siteId=15007

 

Walter Taylor Bridge

http://www.epa.qld.gov.au/chims/placeDetail.html?siteId=14956

Try your skills

 

Build a bridge

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/build.html